In early fall, the male scales emerge as tiny winged insects that search around for females to mate with. They are black, flat, and oval. Description The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. In some cases, the scales are quite numerous. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. Cottony maple leaf scale females are 3 to 4mm long and 2 to 4mm wide. As crawlers, they are highly mobile, six-legged, have no protective cover, and are usually smaller than a pinhead. While the residual life of these products is generally longer than oils and soaps, timing, coverage, and precautions on damage to some plant species are very similar to those for oils and soaps. Severely infested trees look like they are covered with strings of popcorn. The cottony maple scale ( Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. Buds should break a little earlier than when the plant was infested and expanded leaves should have normal color and turgor. This water soluble insecticide is taken up by the roots and transported throughout the plant where it is ingested by sap feeding insects. Consequently, they may not be effective where several … P. innumerabilis can be found on all species of maples (Acer spp.) Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. Aphids; Azalea Lace Bug (Stephanitis pyroides) Azalea Leafminer (Caloptilia azaleella) Cottony Maple Scale; Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula) ... Cottony Maple Scale. The insects feed on foliage, reducing vigor of the plant and causing twig dieback. In the United States, it was first found on the east coast, but is rapidly expanding its range. There are many species of scale insects that feed on a wide range of host plants. Cottony maple scale, adult females with egg sacs on twigs. Cottony cushion scale is usually accompanied by blackish sooty mold growth as show on these citrus leaves. Severely infested trees look like they are covered with strings of popcorn. The females mature when the plant resumes growth in the spring. Cottony Maple Scale; May 18, 2005: ... but do not apply it to sugar or Japanese maple. Cottony maple scale is most easily noticed in late spring. Oleander scale; Oystershell scale; San Jose scale; Carpenterworm; Eriophyid mites; Flatheaded borers. … Inappropriate timing is not only ineffective, but Philanthropy & Alumni Imidacloprid, a systemic insecticide, only controls soft scales. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE Lee Townsend, Extension Entomologist A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Timing pesticide application to the crawler stage is very important. While conspicuous, P. innumerabilis infestations usually have little impact on established trees. Boxelder bugs; Diseases. These scales also produce large amounts of liquid waste (honeydew) so leaves may be shiny and sticky and black sooty mold fungus may cover branches and the trunk. Painted maple aphid ; Armored scales . Male scales are tiny, winged insects. Crawler sprays of acephate (Orthene), befenthrin (Talstar), cyfluthrin (Tempo), insecticidal soap, malathion, or summer oil can also be applied in July when the crawlers are active. The eggs hatch into pale yellow-green crawlers in late June or July and migrat… Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. There is one generation each year. Consequently, they may not be effective where several layers of scale coverings have accumulated. ... Cottony maple scale; Spider mites . At that time, the twice-stabbed lady beetle adults will be under loose bark and not harmed by the spray. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Pulvinaria_innumerabilis&oldid=891399079, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 April 2019, at 18:27. ... Dormant-oil treatments control overwintering female nymphs on most hosts (except sugar and Japanese maple) after leaf drop in the fall and before budbreak in the spring. Large amounts of … Eggs hatch during June and July and crawlers move to the lower surface of leaves where they settle feed on sap for the rest of the summer. Adult females are about 3/16 inch long. Applications must target newly hatched scale crawlers which are active in June and July. but have a strong preference for Silver Maple. .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. ... Cottony maple scales commonly infest silver maple but can feed on several species including other maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. The body is covered with flakes of clear wax. Japanese maple scales small size, ability to blend in, and long crawler emergence period make it difficult to control. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. (76) Photo: Whitney Cranshaw Cottony maple scale crawlers along leaf veins in the summer. 1). Eggs masses are conspicuously white and cottony in appearance. Pulvinaria innumerabilis . Aphids. ... Perhaps the most common is cottony maple scale. Cottony taxus scale is a soft scale (produces a thin, waxy outer covering attached to insect) as opposed to a hard scale (produces a harder, outer shell not attached to the insect). Their eggs are white to pale yellow and are meshed in a white, cottony ovisac which may be up to 5mm wide and 12mm long. Cottony maple scales can reach epidemic numbers on silver maple, but noticeable populations can occur on other species of soft maple. … 2) Cottony camellia scale is also known as Cottony taxus scale Cottony maple cushion scale belong to the soft bodied type. As they grow and develop, the produce honeydew, excess water and sugar exudates, on the leaves. Dean This is due in part to the protection from contact insecticides provided by the waxy coverings over immobile, mature scales. They spend the winter in an immature stage on twigs or branches and complete development in June when the egg sacs appear. Cottony camellia scale and cottony maple scale are the other common species. Departments & Units / Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. Invertebrates. Crawlers are very susceptible to control measures as they move over plant surfaces to find a feeding spot. CAUTION! By late May or early June the female scale has matured and begins to lay hundreds of eggs within a white frothy wax. Soft scales feed in vascular components of plants. However, it may need to be applied several weeks before crawlers are active for best results. COTTONY MAPLE SCALE is an insect pest of maples, especially silver maples and locust trees primarily, but also will infest several other species. Pests and disorders of Acer spp. Scales may also … Pulvinaria innumerabilis (cottony maple scale) is a small, flattened, brown scale insect about 1/8" long. A variety of natural and synthetic insecticides are labeled for use … .• Insecticidal Sprays Horticultural oils kill by suffocation or after penetrating over-wintering stages of the insect. ... Chinese holly and jasmine although it can infest English ivy, euonymous, hydrangea, maple, mulberry, pittosporum, and rhododendron. The cottony maple scale is most easily recognized by the characteristic egg masses on twigs and branches. These products may burn the foliage of sensitive plants, such as Japanese maple, so check the label for information about the plant species that you intend to treat. Heavy infestations can cause leaves to turn yellow to light green and may cause stunted leaf growth. Pulvinaria innumerabilis Pest description and damage Mature cottony maple scale are small, flat, oval, brown insects 0.25 to 0.375 inch in diameter. Cottony Maple Scale. Like horticultural oils, they require thorough coverage. They spend the winter in an immature stage on twigs or branches and complete development … The cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) is one of the largest and most conspicuous scale insects in this country. Figure 9. Japanese maple has a height and spread of about 20 feet, but there are much smaller selections available (Fig. A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Scale control can be challenging and may need to be repeated over several seasons. Pest description and crop damage The cottony maple scale is one of the largest soft scales. Its favored host is maple trees, although it has been found on a number of other species as well. Of course, ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS FOR SAFE USE OF ANY PESTICIDE! During June, the inconspicuous female scales that spent the winter on the stems expand and begin producing a large, white, cottony egg sac. Cottony cushion scale outbreaks have been observed following use of this insecticide because the vedalia beetles were removed and the insecticide didn’t control the pest. Cottony maple scale over-winters as immature females (nymphs) on twigs and branches. Severely prune back heavily infested branches and protect new growth with insecticide applications. During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. Figure 7. In landscape and forested settings, Japanese maple can incur scale insect damage, particularly from cottony maple scale. ENTFACT-427: Cottony Maple Scale | Download PDF. Scales are usually controlled with horticultural oil sprays. A variety of natural and synthetic insecticides are labeled for use as sprays to control scale crawlers on landscape trees and shrubs. Identify cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis), the most common scale insect species to infest maple trees, by their adult female scales with cotton-like egg sacks on their hind ends. Live scales should produce a liquid when mashed, dead scales will be dry and not "bleed" when crushed. Japanese maple. Highly refined supreme, superior, or summer oils can be used on many trees and shrubs during the growing season. The cottony camellia scale is most commonly reported on holly in Kentucky, but it is also found on other hosts, including yew, euonymous, maple, and hydrangea. Pacific spider mite; Twospotted spider mite; True bugs. The cottony white egg sacs of this soft scale appear on undersides of leaves (Figure 1) in May and egg hatch (Figure 2) occurs during June. There are 2 generations a year in Maryland. Cottony Maple Leaf Scale is one of several cottony scales in the genus Pulvinaria. A mature female cottony maple scale is 1/8" long, and has a brown, flat, oval body. Anthracnose; Bacterial leaf … Mature females are pale to dark brown, convex, and about 3-6 mm long (Fig. Dr. Subba Reddy PalliDepartment Chair & State EntomologistS-225 Agricultural Science Center NorthLexington, KY firstname.lastname@example.org, UK Entomology: Vision, Mission, & Core Values, Nancy Cox, Ph.D. In their juvenile growth stage, they are referred to as \"crawlers\". Please check with your local county agent or regulatory official before using any pesticide mentioned in this publication. Residential Recommendation Skip to Residential Recommendation. The overwintering form of the cottony maple scale is a small, brown, flattened 1/8 inch long scale attached to the bark of twigs and small branches. The distinguishing characteristic of these soft scales is the white egg sac (ovisac) produced by female scales in summer. As its name suggests, cottony maple scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis) affects mostly maple trees (predominantly silver and red maples). Scale insects can be controlled using horticultural oil sprays. Honeydew on Japanese maple The majority of acer bugs leave behind sooty substances called honeydew on plants. Scale, mites, and mealybugs all produce this cottony, white fuzzy stuff which you’ll find on your acer leaves, especially younger ones. This ¼ to ½ inch roundish sac looks like a cotton ball and is quite conspicuous, especially when there are many scales on the host plant. Management. However, over-fertilization favors scale buildup. Maple leaf and flowers. 859-257-4772, Students / but have a strong preference for … The insect forms a cottony mass on the lower sides of branches. Egg sacs may grow to as large as 1/2 inch in diameter and may contain up to 1000 eggs. You can conserve natural enemies by using insecticidal soaps and oils which have limited impact on beneficial species in comparison to other control alternatives. Insecticidal soaps are long chain fatty acids that kill susceptible insects through direct contact. They are also called cottony taxus scales as this scale is a fairly common pest of yew. 1). Dormant oils are typically applied during February or March but may not be very effective against armored scales. Cottony camellia scales, Pulvinaria floccifera, are cream to tan, elongate oval, and relatively flat. The use of some products may not be legal in your state or country. (76) Photo: John Davidson be controlled as crawlers and immatures. Cottony maple scale is being found in DuPage, Livingston, and Grundy counties, on silver maple, sugar maple, honeylocust, green ash, and hawthorn. If practical, improve plant sites to reduce stress and promote growth. S123 Ag Science – North One spray during that period … Crawlers settle on… Dead soft scales often fall off of the plant. Wax Scales (Japanese, Florida, or Indian wax scale) Ceroplastes spp. Infestations are most easily noticed during the summer when females produce white, cottony egg sacs that resemble pieces of popcorn on a twigs. Imidacloprid (Bayer Advanced Garden Tree & Shrub Insect Control Concentrate) is applied as a drench around the root zone of infested plants. Soaps leave no residue so repeated applications may be needed for some pests. Immature females are flat and inconspicuous. P. innumerabilis can be found on all species of maples (Acer spp.) Whiteflies; Nursery. Proper timing of insecticide applications is a major key to success. Adult cottony cushion scale female with … Cottony maple scales commonly infest silver maple but can feed on several species including other maples, boxelder, basswood, birch, elm, and linden. New foliage of infested plants should have a healthier appearance once the scale burden has been removed. Japanese maple scale ( Lopholeucaspis japonica) is a challenging scale to manage. It is also known to be able to survive on other deciduous trees and shrubs including honey and black locust, white ash, euonymus, oak, boxelder, dogwood, hackberry, sycamore, linden, beech, elm, willow, basswood, poplar, rose and sumac. The insect forms a cottony mass on the lower sides of branches. The 1/4-inch white cottony ovisac, or egg sac, is deposited on bark. The body of the scale is white and resembles a kernel of popcorn. The success or failure of control efforts may not be readily apparent but here are some things to check. In early summer mature females begin to secrete white, waxy, cottony-appearing egg sacs in which they lay as many as 1,500 eggs. The multiple trunks are muscular-looking, picturesque, grey and show nicely when lit up at night. Extension / The body enlarges several times greater than the overwintering scale, resembling a kernel of popcorn. The pest is very common in the tri-city area of Michigan at this time. During the summer, the scale enlarges by secreting wax resulting in a body several times greater than the overwintering form. Pesticide recommendations in this publication are registered for use in Kentucky, USA ONLY! Each mass usually contains 1,000-1,500 eggs. Research / Digital Media Library, Images: University of Kentucky Entomology, College of Agriculture, Food and Environment.