ferdinand marcos programs

The total value of these items was $15 millon. Our opponents say Marcos was not a real guerrilla. US support was believed to be the only reason why Marcos remained in power.[446]. 1107 dated February 16, 1981 and was further strengthened by PD No. [392][better source needed][additional citation(s) needed]. But after 32 years of operation, Asia’s first theme park was forced to close its doors in 2001 and was removed from its original site near the Ninoy Aquino International Airport I. Communist Party Leader Jose Maria Sison had calculated that Marcos could be provoked into cracking down on his opponents, thereby driving thousands of political activists into the underground, the anonymous former officials said. [205] Marcos's regime was sensitive to publicity of his condition; a palace physician who alleged that during one of these periods Marcos had undergone a kidney transplant was shortly afterwards found murdered. [248] This electoral exercise was marred by widespread reports of violence and tampering of election results. The most dreaded of these was the Manila-based 5th Constabulary Security Unit (CSU) which featured the dreaded torturer Lt. Rodolfo Aguinaldo,[26][120] credited with capturing most of the Communist Party leaders including Jose Ma. At the height of the revolution, Juan Ponce Enrile revealed that a purported and well-publicized ambush attempt against him years earlier was in fact faked, and in his claim, it was in order for Marcos to have a pretext for imposing martial law. Until now, these infrastructures continue to help our economy in their own aspect. 34. The next major protest took place on January 30, in front of the presidential palace,[142] where activists rammed the gate with a fire truck and once the gate broke and gave way, the activists charged into the Palace grounds tossing rocks, pillboxes, Molotov cocktails. Marcos claimed that he was a descendant of Antonio Luna, a Filipino general during the Philippine–American War. [128], Massive foreign loans enabled Marcos to build more schools, hospitals and infrastructure than all of his predecessors combined,[17] but at great cost. The restorations was paid for by Vilma Bautista, Imelda's personal assistant and Luna 7 Development Corp., a corporation registered in New York. Marcos' policies are mostly correct. The first Director of the PHC was Avenilo P. Aventura (1974-1986), a cardiovascular surgeon who performed many pioneering operations in the Philippines including the first successful renal transplantation in 1970, the first CABG in 1972, and developed and implanted the first ASEAN bioprosthesis, the PHCA porcine valve. [433], In 1975, Marcos issued Presidential Decree No. It was created to engage in collating, developing and analyzing credit information on individuals, institutions, business entities and other business concerns. Recruits were urgently needed, they said, to make use of a large influx of weapons and financial aid that China had already agreed to provide. The government gave huge subsidies to the company. [citation needed], Crocker merely stated that the money came from "various Asian countries. By being more willing than those previous presidents to use foreign loans to fund construction projects, he was able to achieve construct more roads and schoolbuildings than any previous administration.[96](p128). [163][164] There were a series of deadly bombings in 1971, and the CIA privately stated that Marcos was responsible for at least one of them. [131](p"43") partly because doing so was good for building up the AFP budget. [91], Marcos became chairman of the House Committee on Commerce and Industry and a member of the House Committees on Defense, Ways and Means; Industry; Banks Currency; War Veterans; Civil Service; and on Corporations and Economic Planning. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos was born on Sept. 11, 1917, to Mariano and Josefa Marcos in the village of Sarrat, on the island of Luzon, the Philippines. On June 16, 1981, six months after the lifting of martial law, the first presidential election in twelve years was held. [217] A considerable amount of this money went to the Marcos family and friends in the form of behest loans. He was also an accomplished orator, debater, and writer for the student newspaper. Marcos administration 1. [107] Educated or not, the story of the Jabidah massacre led many Filipino Muslims to believe that all opportunities for integration and accommodation with the Christians were lost and further marginalised. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos was born on September 11, 1917, in the town of Sarrat, Ilocos Norte to Mariano Marcos (1897–1945) and Josefa Edralin (1893–1988). Comparisons have been made between Ferdinand Marcos and Lee Kuan Yew's authoritarian style of governance and Singapore's success,[276] but in his autobiography, From Third World to First: The Singapore Story: 1965–2000, Lee relates: It is a soft, forgiving culture. Search Search [440] A large number of the laws passed during the term of Marcos remain in force today and are embedded in the country's legal system. [372](p"27"), The initial deposit of under $1 million grew into hundreds of millions, especially after Marcos declared martial law in 1972. [392], Following the tragedy, then Prime Minister Cesar Virata disapproved the $5 million subsidy, which was intended for the film festival. CONDITION OF THE PHILIPPINES There was a decrease of freedom and democracy during the second term of Ferdinand Marcos. Siya ay isang abogado at nagsilbing kasapi ng Kapulungan ng mga Kinatawan ng Pilipinas mula 1949 hanggang 1959 at kasapi ng Senado ng Pilipinas mula 1959 hanggang 1965 bago naging Pangulo ng Pilipinas noong 1965 para sa … President: Ferdinand E. Marcos: 1965–1973: Vice. [38] This marked the beginning of a 14-year period of one man rule which would effectively last until Marcos was exiled from the country on February 25, 1986. Thus far, he is the last Senate President to become President of the Philippines. Ferdinand was baptized into the Philippine Independent Church,[71] but was baptized in the Roman Catholic Church at the age of three. Here are some achievements during the administration of President Ferdinand Marcos. [45] However, under martial law the Marcos administration was able to reduce violent urban crime, collect unregistered firearms, and suppress communist insurgency in some areas. Because of the developments (economically, industrially, and infrastructures) Marcos accomplished, there was a massive increase in tourism rates. [314], Victims include Primitivo "Tibo" Mijares,[312] Emmanuel Alvarez, Albert Enriquez, Ma. The overall economy experienced a slower growth GDP per capita, lower wage conditions and higher unemployment especially towards the end of Marcos's term after the 1983–1984 recession. Ferdinand Marcos was not the first, or the last, president to abuse his power. [120], Marcos's spending during the campaign led to opposition figures such as Senator Lorenzo Tañada, Senator Jovito Salonga, and Senator Jose Diokno to accuse Marcos of wanting to stay in power even beyond the two term maximum set for the presidency by the 1935 constitution. This program was started in September 1981. This held the country under a debt-servicing crisis which is expected to be fixed by only 2025. It was here that the Marcos-Romualdez clan stepped in. They are usually covered with high walls. Presidents of the Philippines. Having a total length of 2.16 kilometres (1.34 mi), it is the longest bridge over a body of water in the Philippines. [citation needed], As one of his rationalizations for the declaration of martial law, Marcos said that there was a need to "reform society"[171](p"66") by placing it under the control of a "benevolent dictator" will could guide the undisciplined populace through a period of chaos. and I heat the words "his dictatorship was known for its corruption and brutality."!!! Indeed, before Ferdinand Marcos launched his political career in 1949, his father Mariano Marcos was known for losing in elections—badly. Ferdinand Marcos's Golden Achievements, it must be outweighted by bad from the critics who are Anti-Nazis, Liberals, Democratic Nationalists. Jump to Page . Between the two fighters is Marco’s wife Imelda. [82], Marcos, who had received ROTC training, was activated for service in the US Armed Forces in the Philippines (USAFIP) after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Marcos was referring to both presidential candidate Corazon Aquino's father-in-law Benigno Aquino Sr. and vice presidential candidate Salvador Laurel's father, José P. Laurel. [397], On September 8, 1969, the CCP main building was inaugurated as the “country’s premier arts institution.”[399] The inauguration was originally set in January 1969, but was postponed because funds were running out from campaign overspending. 673 issued by President Ferdinand E. Marcos in 1975. [b] No American military or politician in the 1970s ever publicly questioned the authority of Marcos to help fight communism in South East Asia. By the end of 1979, debt was still manageable, with debt to Debt-GNP ratio about the same as South Korea, according to the US National Bureau of Economic Research. Presidential elections were held on November 11, 1969, and Marcos was reelected for a second term. More than a year after the People Power Revolution, it was revealed to the United States House Foreign Affairs subcommittee in 1987 that Marcos held an intention to fly back to the Philippines and overthrow the Aquino government. [342] In 1993, she was convicted of graft in Manila for entering into three unfavorable lease contracts between a Government-run transportation agency and another government-run hospital. [239] In the late '60s, the Marcos administration took advantage of IRRI's new "miracle rice" cultivar (IR8),[239] promoting its use throughout the Philippines. Although controversies and unsolved cases marred his term, what will also be forever engraved in Philippine history are his contributions in … Presidents of the Philippines. Some believe his entire life was based on fraud, deceit, and theft, and his time as president has come to represent one of the prime examples of a corrupt government. Marcos’ father was lawyer and politician in his own right and he followed in his father’s footsteps both in terms of his choice of education as well as career choice. [333], According to Presidential Commission on Good Government, the Marcos family and their cronies looted so much wealth from the Philippines that, to this day, investigators have difficulty determining precisely how many billions of dollars were stolen. Persistent rumors say that Ferdinand's biological father was a man named Ferdinand Chua, who served as his godfather. [139][better source needed], By the time Marcos gave the first State of the Nation Address of his second term on January 26, 1970, the unrest born from the 1969–1970 balance of payments crisis exploded into a series of demonstrations, protests, and marches against the government. Marcos Regime Education. Manila: Department of Public Information. From The Leader, September 11, 1972. Popular speculation pointed to three suspects; the first was Marcos himself through his trusted military chief Fabian Ver; the second theory pointed to his wife Imelda who had her own burning ambition now that her ailing husband seemed to be getting weaker, and the third theory was that Danding Cojuangco planned the assassination because of his own political ambitions. We must prepare for that day. On November 22, 2007, Pablo Martinez, one of the convicted suspects in the assassination of Ninoy Aquino Jr. alleged that it was Ninoy Aquino Jr.'s relative, Danding Cojuangco, cousin of his wife Corazon Cojuangco Aquino, who ordered the assassination of Ninoy Aquino Jr. while Marcos was recuperating from his kidney transplant. [422][425], The Philippine economy began to go in decline in 1981 because of excessive debt,[201] however, and finally went into a tailspin in 1984. Ferdinand Edralin Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was the tenth (10th) President of the Republic of the Philippines and the only president to stay in … It aims to develop and undertake the continuing exchange of credit data within its members and subscribers and to provide an impartial source of credit information for debtors, creditors and the public. Due to the absence of foreign exchange controls in Hong Kong, it was impossible to determine the origin of the money. [364][page needed], In New Jersey while she was still studying, Imee Marcos, President Ferdinand Marcos’ eldest daughter, was given an 18th-century estate to live in. Arrested by the PC in Bgy. Other delegates would become influential political figures, including Hilario Davide, Jr., Marcelo Fernan, Sotero Laurel, Aquilino Pimentel, Jr., Teofisto Guingona, Jr., Raul Roco, Edgardo Angara, Richard Gordon, Margarito Teves, and Federico Dela Plana. The burial came as unexpected to many, as the Supreme Court's ruling still allowed 15 days for the opposition to file a motion for reconsideration. [25][290] According to torture victim Rigoberto Tiglao, nearly all of the human rights abuses President Marcos has been accused of were undertaken by Philippine Constabulary units, especially through its national network of "Constabulary Security Units," whose heads reported directly to Fidel V. Ramos. Economic policies of FERDINAND MARCOS Certain habits/behaviors of the people contribute to the obstacles to modernization. Introduction. [160], The government subsequently captured NPA leaders Bernabe Buscayno in 1976 and Jose Maria Sison in 1977. [206] With Marcos ailing, his powerful wife, Imelda, emerged as the government's main public figure. The Philippine economy, heavily reliant on exports to the United States, suffered a great decline after the Aquino assassination in August 1983 because Filipino business and political leaders who studied in Harvard, Yale, and other US universities began lobbying American and foreign firms to discourage them from investing in the Philippines. "[160] José María Sison continues to deny these claims,[161] and the CPP has never released any official confirmation of their culpability in the incident. [351][needs update], In the 2004 Global Corruption Report, Marcos appeared in the list of the world's most corrupt leaders, listed in second place behind Suharto, the former President of Indonesia. Victims include Bonifacio Ilagan. Located in Quezon City, the 2-storey institute is constructed of three buildings (Main, Annex and Dialysis Center) connected to each other (see in Google Maps). THE EARLY YEARS President Marcos, faced with the challenge of corruption in the government, reorganized the Armed Forces, the Philippine Constabulary, and the Bureau of Internal Revenue. Rescuers and ambulances were only permitted to enter the site 9 hours after the incident. Although controversies and unsolved cases marred his term, what will also be forever engraved in Philippine history are his contributions in … [312][313][120], Enforced disappearances, also known "desaparecidos" or "the disappeared"—people who suddenly went missing, sometimes without a trace and with bodies never recovered. [465], A number of books were published under Marcos' name during his term from 1970 to 1983, and a final book was published in 1990 posthumously. [457][458][459], Corazon Aquino repealed many of the repressive laws that had been enacted during Marcos's dictatorship. After pilot studies in Metro Manila, she finally launched it in 1976 as a national program and resource center for the creative education of pre-school children, particularly in the first three years of the child. In one of his presidential speeches, he stated that the bases were a threat to regional peace and security, while reminding the United States of its "solemn obligation" to continue aid. [401], Construction of the bridge began in 1969. [193], Because the Marcos administration's spending had relied so heavily on debt since Marcos' first term in the 60s, the Philippines was left vulnerable when the US economy went into recession in the third quarter of 1981, forcing the Reagan administration to increase interest rates. [477][478][479][480][481] As of January 2020, Ferdinand Marcos is listed in the Guinness World Records website as holding the record for "Greatest robbery of a Government". Zoilo Francisco, August 1979. [247] The official election canvasser, the Commission on Elections (COMELEC), declared Marcos the winner. [citation needed] Today, according to Ibon Foundation, Filipino citizens are still bearing the heavy burden of servicing public debts incurred during Marcos's administration, with ongoing interest payments on the loan schedule by the Philippine government estimated to last until 2025–59 years after Marcos assumed office and 39 years after he was deposed. Finally, at 9:00 p.m., the Marcos family was transported by four Sikorsky HH-3E helicopters[255] to Clark Air Base in Angeles City, Pampanga, about 83 kilometers north of Manila, before boarding US Air Force C-130 planes bound for Andersen Air Force Base in Guam, and finally to Hickam Air Force Base in Hawaii where Marcos arrived on February 26. President Ferdinand Marcos Programs [m34mk0xpgzn6]. [143], The protests ranged from 50,000 to 100,000 in number per weekly mass action. It was estimated to be between $19 to $20 million after renovations were done. It is for this reason that the San Juanico Bridge remains to be the one of the costliest white elephant projects during the Marcos era. The boy was named Ferdinand Edralin Marcos. Thirteen of the 23 banks mentioned by Drilon are in Switzerland, namely: Swiss Credit Bank, Swiss Bank Corp., Bankers Trust AG, Banque Paribas, Affida Bank, Copla, S.A., Lombard Odier et Cie, Standard Chartered Bank, Swiss Volkabank, Bank Ricklin, Compaigne Banque Et d’Investissements, Compaigne de Gestion Et De Banque Gonet Sa Nyon, and Bank Hoffman AG. Upon his re-election to the Presidency in 1981, Marcos was succeeded as Prime Minister by an American-educated leader and Wharton graduate, Cesar Virata, who was elected as an Assemblyman (Member of the Parliament) from Cavite in 1978. It was later placed under the administration of the Ministry of Health by President Corazon Aquino on July 29, 1986 under Executive Order No. Enrile and Ramos would later abandon Marcos and switch sides and seek protection behind the 1986 People Power Revolution, backed by fellow-American educated Eugenio Lopez Jr., Jaime Augusto Zobel de Ayala, and the old political and economic elites. The body was only brought back to the Philippines four years after Marcos's death during the term of President Fidel Ramos. A floating casino was allowed to operate exclusively inside the Manila Bay. [page needed]Marcos had an affair with American actress Dovie Beams from 1968 to 1970.. Marcos claimed that he was a descendant of Antonio Luna, a Filipino general during the Philippine–American War. [94] Marcos won the presidency in 1965.[95]. [295], According to the late Susan Quimpo, co-author of Subversive Lives, 80,000 was a low figure for the number of persons incarcerated during the Marcos regime. The lobby, which would normally take 6 weeks to finish, was constructed in 72 hours by 1,000 workers. Marcos studied law at the University of the Philippines in Manila, attending the College of Law. Ferdinand E. Marcos was a former President and prime Minister, statesman, war hero, author, poet and parliamentarian. This focus on infrastructure, which critics saw as a propaganda technique, eventually earned the colloquial label "edifice complex". After the Marcos-Romualdez takeover, the government allowed MERALCO to increase consumer rates. [263][264], In response, the Aquino government dismissed Marcos's statements as being a mere propaganda ploy. The remaining opposition delegates were forced to go either into exile or hiding. [228], According to the book The Making of the Philippines by Frank Senauth (p. 103):[229], Marcos himself diverted large sums of government money to his party's campaign funds. The Swiss are known for their mastery in money laundering thanks to the central role of secrecy in their society. He selected Arturo Tolentino as his running mate. [365][page needed] This would become the significant link between the real estate investment and the client. [170] The first of these bombings took place on March 15, 1972, and the last took place on September 11, 1972,[170] – twelve days before martial law was announced on September 23 of that year. The Fifth Division's (of the Sandiganbayan) ruling read that "the fact that she is of advanced age and for health reasons, consistent with the doctrine in Enrile vs Sandiganbayan, bail is allowed for these seven cases. While Carter wanted to retain the US military bases in the Philippines to project military power in the Indian Ocean to guard West's oil supply line from the Middle East. In 1978, Ferdinand Marcos became Prime Minister of the Philippines, marking the return of the position for the first time since the terms of Pedro Paterno and Jorge Vargas during the American occupation. Ferdinand Marcos received his Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) [96](p128) A 2011 study by University of the Philippines School of Economics indicated that at the time of the study, Marcos was the president that spent the most on infrastructure, not just because he stayed in power for nearly two and a half decades, but in terms of actual per-year spending. In an attempt to launch a national economic recovery program and despite his growing isolation from American businesses, Marcos negotiated with foreign creditors including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for a restructuring of the country's foreign debts – to give the Philippines more time to pay the loans. [201][426] This resulted in the closure of factories, massive layoffs, and the end of work on Marcos' industrialization projects until he was finally deposed two years later. He was elected the President of the Philippines in 1965, and presided over an economy that grew during the beginning and intermediate portion of his 20-year rule,[34] but ended in the loss of livelihoods, extreme poverty,[35][36] and a crushing debt crisis. The line between leftist activists and communists became increasingly blurred, as a significant number of radicalized activists also joined the Communist Party of the Philippines. These groups were branded "radicals" by the media,[125][127] although the Marcos administration extended that term to "moderate" protest groups as well. [355][356], On May 9, 2016, the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists released the searchable database from Panama Papers. The Peso was allowed to float to a lower market value, resulting in drastic inflation, and social unrest.[120]. It cost $25 million. Creating the Metropolitan Manila and the Metropolitan Manila Commission and for Other Purposes", "Governorship of Manila Is Increasing Powers of Imelda Marcos", "Meet Arturo Tanco, a technocrat who tends the vital farming front", "Marcos best president if not for dictatorship – Duterte", "PHILIPPINE AGRICULTURE: TODAY AND THE FUTURE! 2 3. [121][122][123][124] His running mate, incumbent Vice President Fernando Lopez was also elected to a third full term as Vice President of the Philippines. [18] But one of Marcos' own former Ministers of industry, Vicente Paterno,[352] notes that while "the amount of theft perpetrated by Marcos's regime was probably less than that by Suharto on Indonesia," it "harmed our country more because the sums stolen by Marcos were sent out of the country, whereas Suharto's loot mostly were invested in Indonesia. THE PHILIPPINES UNDER FERDINAND MARCOS. [365][page needed][364][page needed] As this happened, another lawyers, often in the US, would be hired for a fee of S200 to S3,000 to arrange for the incorporation of another offshore corporation through accounting firms in Curaçao in the Netherlands Antilles. [133][better source needed][134], Other watershed events that would later radicalize many otherwise "moderate" opposition members include the February 1971 Diliman Commune; the August 1971 suspension of the writ of habeas corpus in the wake of the Plaza Miranda bombing; the September 1972 declaration of martial law; the 1980 murder of Macli-ing Dulag;[135] and the August 1983 assassination of Ninoy Aquino.[127]. Marcos ordered a cut in government expenditures and used a portion of the savings to finance the Sariling Sikap (Self-Reliance), a livelihood program he established in 1984. 3 2. [51] To avoid what could have been a military confrontation in Manila between pro- and anti-Marcos troops, Marcos was advised by US President Ronald Reagan through Senator Paul Laxalt to "cut and cut cleanly. The projected budget for the construction of CCP was P15 million, but by December 1968 the cost had already reached P48 million, and the construction was not even complete yet. You can reach him at joel@hoppler.com.ph, Penthouse, Prince Building, 117 Rada St., Marcos died in Honolulu on the morning of September 28, 1989, of kidney, heart, and lung ailments 17 days after his 72nd birthday. But, certainly, he set a seemingly unbreakable record. Search inside document . [364][page needed] Hong Kong, more conveniently located for the Philippines, has developed facilities for the movement of money and the ready availability of various British lawyers who offer services of opening front or shell corporations for a fee. You are on page 1 of 2. Nacionalista Party leader Ferdinand Marcos dominated the political scene of the Philippines for two decades after his election to the presidency in 1965. The Prime Minister also acted as head of the National Economic Development Authority. Graft and corruption via bribery, racketeering, and embezzlement became more prevalent during this era. However, due to Finance Secretary Jaime Ongpin's warning[382] on the consequences of a debt default, which includes isolating the country from the international financial community and hampering the economic recovery, Corazon Aquino honored all the debts incurred during the Marcos Administration,[383] contrary to expectations of left-learning organizations like Ibon Foundation which advocated for non-payment of debt. [85] His account of events was later cast into doubt after a United States military investigation exposed many of his claims as either false or inaccurate. Famous concerts are usually staged in this covered amphitheater which has a seating capacity of 8,458 with ten sections. Look at them. Legazpi Village, Makati City, Philippines. "[453] The Supreme Court of the Philippines affirms that the Marcoses’ assets, that are beyond the legal and declared government salaries, are considered as ill-gotten wealth. Curtis, "Check Sheet, Subject:Ferdinand E. Marcos" sent to Lt. Col. W.M. Hitalinga, Artacho, From 1970 to 1971, pro-government militias like the, The Tong Umapoy Massacre in 1983 where a Navy ship opened fire on a passenger boat en route to an athletic event in, This page was last edited on 3 December 2020, at 19:52. [427] The site chosen for the nuclear plant was also dangerous, as it was built near the open sea, the then-dormant Mount Pinatubo, and was within 25 miles of three geological faults. The estimated total price was raised to around $650 million because of other charges like fuel and transmission lines. Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Senior was a Filipino politician who went on to serve as the president of the country for twenty one years. By March 1975, Westinghouse's contract price increased to $1.1 billion for interest and escalation costs. President Ferdinand Marcos Programs. Marcos expenditure for 20 yrs is 486 billion with Cory expenditure for 6 yrs is 1.07 trillion Cory has only 1 major infra. [144] On March 16 of that year, the Philippine Congress constituted itself into a Constituent Assembly and passed Resolution No. 30, s. 1966 | GOVPH", "San Juanico, Eastern Visayas' iconic bridge, to be lit up by end of 2018", "7 in 10 ODA projects fail to deliver touted benefits | Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism", "The enduring nightmare of the Manila Film Center", "Manila Film Center Deaths | Philippine History", "Farmers oppose revival of Marcos' 'Masagana 99, "The Development of "Miracle Rice" Varieties", "Some notes on the Masagana 99 [rice] program and small farmer access to credit [Philippines]", "Greener on the other side: Deforestation in the wake of Martial Law", "A range of 11 big industrial projects is in the works", "The Energy Development Corporation – Who We Are", "Energy Development Corporation Milestones", Industrial Policies and Implementation: Philippine Automotive Manufacturing as a Lens (Discussion Paper Series No. Marcos, Ferdinand E. (1972). [380] Jaime Ongpin, who is a brother of Marcos trade minister Roberto Ongpin, was later dismissed by Cory Aquino and later died in an apparent suicide after "he had been depressed about infighting in Aquino's cabinet and disappointed that the 'People Power' uprising which had toppled dictator Ferdinand Marcos had not brought significant change". He was a lawyer, member of the Philippine House of Representatives (1949–1959) and member of the Philippine Senate (1959–1965). [429], Its cost reached over $2.3 million and was only paid off by the government in April 2017, 31 years after the beginning of its construction.

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